Saturday, May 24, 2008
HISTORY: "Origins of the communist armed resistance"
Part of the series "Memories Fariano - Following in the footsteps of our memories" carried out by the Bolivarian Cadena Radial Voice of the Resistance. Efrain Guzman (Commander Nariño) tells part of the background of the founding of the FARC EP, the stages of resistance and political construction in IRCO, in Cambrín, and then in Davis. We turn on the stage of resistance in Villa Rica to reach the attack on Marquetalia of 1,964. Few knew Efrain Guzman through the media. In mid-October 2000, under the full meeting of the Directorate of the Caribbean Bloc, Comrade agrees to discuss aspects of the History of the FARC. By Rodrigo Granda and Jesus Santrich, Fighters of the FARC-EP Memories Fariano - Following in the footsteps of our memories (Part One) "Origins of the communist armed resistance" Based on stories of Commander Efrain Guzman Source: www.bolivarsomostodos.org Few knew Efrain Guzman through the media. The truth, until then existed only in a video that was filmed making Pegadó and a blurred photograph, taken ill, in which almost did not differentiate their factions. Perhaps by being a man of few words, very reserved, always evaded cameras and interviews. But this time, mid-October 2000 surely, under the full meeting of the Directorate of the Caribbean Bloc, Comrade Narino agrees to dialogue with the Bolivarian Cadena Radial Voice of the Resistance on aspects of the History of the FARC . Origins of RESISTENIA armed Communities Preamble Important was the event, so they were at that camp in the mountains Comrade Ivan Marquez and Aldemar Altamiranda among others who were arriving within a few days, one to one, the Road Back Bertulfo, Solis, Martin Caballero, Manuel 35, Leonardo 59, Fabio Borges, Hernando, Ciro, Guillermo and other comrades who had come to these corners of the Eastern Cordillera with the main purpose of making the reunion of the General Staff of the block Carib. They were arriving to the site of encounter and enlist their reports. In such circumstances waiting enlistment and was given the opportunity to make some recordings of talks held with either of those memories on the vicissitudes of the organization of Fronts and the Bloc. Ivan Marquez is an exemplary man, always share with everyone what you think after listening to views make their decisions. He, with his sensitivity and appreciation, and an afternoon of early November convinced the comrade Ephraim to this exchange on some of their many experiences. Guzman certainly a point of reference necessary to talk about the history of the Blocks Jose Maria Cordova and Caribbean, because with his effort contributed to the emergence of many of their foreheads. As a member of the Secretariat and from the man who was 12 years in the ranks, had an overall view, moreover, the development of our Organization. And although the reserve and discretion are key features of the commander Guzman, or Narino is also known as us, has delivered his simple approach to what was the emergence of the FARC and, subsequently, their findings on the emergence of the Fifth Front that is, we can say, the base where the conformation boots back of Block Jose Maria Cordova and the Caribbean Bloc. This Fifth Front, for example, emerged on 18, then that gives rise to the Front 35 that today is part of all the structures operating in the north coast. Guzman says, "One can not speak for everyone who appear making an interview because many take what one says and what turned legs and back p'arriba nothing what one thinks, and thus can not be the thing I do not think… honest nor desirable to tergiverse, which is why it is better to talk when there is confidence, without haste, with little in the spare time ... " So with these thoughts began the dialogue between Efrain Guzman and Cadena Radial Bolivarian Voice of the Resistance, which are some sections dealing with the history of our organization insurgency. We will see how the commander tells Narino part of the background of the founding of the FARC EP, ie stages of resistance and political construction in IRCO, in Cambrín, and then in Davis. We turn on the stage of resistance in Villa Rica to reach the attack on Marquetalia of 1,964, to even address the specific aspect of the operation Sonora. We hope you enjoy. Compatriots, Rodrigo Granda and Jesus Santrich. 1. Far out in the memories -- Radio Cadena Bolivarian - Voice of the Resistance (CRB-VR). Comrade Ephraim, since when are you in the guerrilla ranks? -- Efrain Guzman. I think relationships where I was 12 years. That was at 55, during the Resistance of Villarrica. -- VR-CRB. Well, you must be familiar with the whole process of emergence and development of the FARC. Even you must handle the events most relevant precedents. -- Efrain Guzman. I have a general idea from what I've lived. That is what more I have in mind, not very precisely because it is anyway time passes and as many things that are blurring. And these facts before the founding of the FARC if I have less memory as well that I am very bad pa 'dates. I agree things but he could not say either that happened in this day or that month, or even the years I was getting tangled up. -- VR-CRB. But well, for example, do you remember the details of the resistance of Villarrica? -- Efrain Guzman. Yes, yes…, these clear facts, the principal, are always coming because there is that if it is already as important as one's life and not take any clear date. But as no one is going to agree so much lead, so many dead and many pods for which he has touched many people pass by the whim of the oligarchs. And not only of Villarrica, one begins to get and keep forever in the head until the things that one has not lived, but that colleagues of good and bad are counting on him every moment of fight or rest. -- VR-CRB. Tell us what you save in your mind all these stories that have reached today on violence, on the emergence of liberal and communist guerrillas on his life in the FARC, but first and foremost in expressing what you each time you thought of those things. Tell us about your views and their views on the future of Colombia taking into account their experience. -- Efrain Guzman. That is long and I'm not man as well as many words and so you can count is how things generally. In addition as well as I did not serve him to make history story is what I have and what I've lived in so short but that if, but without telling cart get pods that are specific and that one respects the dignity and are one and that is why you can not walk because HANDS is that almost everything has been fighting, blood and until the surrender of the lives of a lot of good people. -- VR-CRB. We could start talking about Villarrica, the Resistance. From the story of how it was joining the guerrillas. -- E. G. Yes, I think we can talk about it first, of the Resistance, because what my income that is not so important, but the acts for which he fought a battle and if that is important, is what counts. -- VR-CRB. What was then the resistance of Villarrica? -- E. G. Well I'm going to run from before to better understand everything. At that time I was a kid, I was 12 years old when I arrived in Villarrica and I joined the guerrillas. I was very small and not well understood that was what was happening but one is seeing, hearing and living and then one goes assimilating things. Over time, perhaps longer remain with Comrade Manuel, you put some 10 years after the Resistance of Villarrica is that I come to understand as well is that they are the roots of what happened there, which were the causes and because it followed this fight now, if we count from the 55 already carries 46 years and will p'a long. So I want to tell before. -- VR-CRB. Yes we will rebuild on paper what you remembered as something living and also as something that has been the permanence of oral histories that have been the experience of many of his fellow fight. Since when can we do this story? -- E. G. That is what I mean ... you see to understand a little better I'm going to talk has since the death of Gaitan, because that is very important. And Prestel attention after the fight that we must look at revolutionary guerrilla including the foundation of Davis, if Villarrica and soon after the founding of Rio Chiquito up and get to what was proper Resistance of Marquetalia, and amid all this to include other facts that are also pieces or as parts of the roots of what today are the FARC, and they have some players that not counting what they did demerits would be a very valuable contribution that was essential to effectively organize the movement. That, then, is background as you say. -- VR-CRB. Taking into account that you just say you ordered this story in stages. So, for example, can begin to stage the events on the death of Gaitan, continuing in its order with Davis, Villarrica, Rio Chiquito, Marquetalia, etc..? -- E. G. That is, not so soon in order but making the attempt. That if I go long and say all you asking me to clarify what they touch. 2. The murder of Jorge Eliecer Gaitan ER -- VR-CRB. Let us begin, then with violence the end of the 40 and everything that was generated around the serious matter of the death of Gaitan. -- E. G. It turns out that a little before 1,950 conservatives were ruling. For a divisiveness that occurred between the Liberals, which anyway seemed that were less reactionary, ascended to the presidency Mariano Ospina (Refers to the presidential term from 1956 to 1950), but had problems between the same oligarchy that is because the conservatives had the presidency and the liberal majority in the chambers and clear that they had more people and had influence among workers, students and other sectors. Then the liberals and communists who were still a small party he made opposition to Ospina Perez who had mounted a repressive government backed by the armed forces. So to avoid protests the government banned demonstrations and labor organizations. It was at that time when it appears as Gaitan already taking a big political force that was increasingly gaining more and more people. That was clear what Gaitan, who was seen good ideas, things that he liked the people because they were brave and serious arguments against the oligarchy of either party, would win the presidency. Then on April 9, 1948 the kill. What killed the oligarchs, I would not say who killed him Ospina, or liberal or conservative party, nor to exclude these parties. -- VR-CRB. Tell us a little of that assessment, so that Gaitan had not killed him "Ospina, or the Conservative Party, neither liberal nor excludes these parties." This is not contradictory. -- E. G. No, no ..., what happens is that this was not a matter of a president or a government or a party alone. We can not blame only to Ospina, and, although he has had part of the blame. Here the matter is that this crime is the work of the powerful class of exploitative, including - yes there - the government also gringo. Why that is there are people in the party of the people who usually are there more by tradition or custom but not by ideology and these people can not be responsible for such a crime if we say that the parties were responsible. The parties can not be excluded in their top leadership and we must also stick to Ospina and the government, but not to themselves, and their behavior always known as the gringo government could be excluded. So the best way to explain it is saying that the responsibility - no doubt, is in the oligarchy as a class, operators in these wealthy families that have always been appropriating country trampling on poor people. Are they as a team to which he agreed not to Gaitan rose to power with all those ideas for people in need. But the boar of all, it killed Gaitan and then threw him to blame the Communist Party, and finally wash their hands of both liberals and conservatives had no problem to get together and apparently the country that everything was as if nothing, then created a sheath that called the National Union. -- VR-CRB. Does your view is that the death of Gaitan allowed solving the problems between liberals and conservatives? -- E. G. The problem is that these people when they see that things are put ugly forget internal problems and put them to work together to appease the dissatisfaction of the people, but just spend the serious dangers for what is the proper class oligarch as such, just see that there is no longer a danger that people will snatch power, returning to their fights comadres, and the worst thing is that these fights used to a lot of local people. So that is why they invented such as National Union to placate the avalanche of anger that came with the assassination of Gaitán, but barely step into the danger continued their routine supporter conflict which has nothing to do with the interests of the people. And that is despite the National Union, between liberals and conservatives continued to outrages that were made in the press and also enjoyed a complete monopoly charges conservatism of the government and police. All this meant that after a while the Liberal Party withdrew from the government of National Unity (this happens in 1950), and then if there was increased violence partisan. In Villarrica, when we were in the Resistance and since then in the talks that the leaders gave the people pushing the United Front, which was the political project of the revolutionaries we explained these things is because many of those who fought in Villarrica came from Davis and had lived all these fights that took place there with the liberal guerrillas of Loaiza who depended on their emergence of such a partisan war in which the conservatism first launched hard against the Liberals. The Liberals and organized guerrilla everything, but again when they agreed among themselves to the oligarchy, then dismissed these guerrilla one hand and put the other to act against the Communists, while others became bandits and robbers. All these stories were learning all the things they had because they were marking the destiny of all people was the main part of Resistance of Villarrica. 3. Guerrilla liberal and Communist guerrillas -- VR-CRB. It is known that the guerrillas were Loaiza liberals and even Comrade Manuel Gerardo Loaiza was related to who was the head of the guerrillas. Of the Loaiza is known also as before to confront the communist guerrillas had good relations, to the point that several actions against chulavitas made them as allies. What do you have the idea Loaiza and generally liberal guerrillas of the time? -- E. G. I repeat that this stage not lived, but one had the idea that he knew of the heads. I just heard things out there because I was a boy and things like weight of the heads were talking. Anyway, one became an idea between comment and comment and then what has already oneself was analyzing the behavior of all those groups of guerrillas and criminals that liberals set to work with the government of Rojas Pinilla for example. -- VR-CRB. Then on the liberal guerrillas of Tolima, in connection with communist guerrillas, what can we say? -- E. G. If it is true that the main principle between the guerrillas of Tolima and the Communists had friendship and that means an enemy because he had the same for both and this is so: Tolima department was known as a liberal and that's why the government Conservative repression rode him seriously. For there chulavita sent detachments of police with orders to crush any expression of authority or power liberal, and those orders were watering the chulavitas deaths and robbery everywhere. Among the sites that were well entrenched liberals such was the area of Chaparral, Rio Blanco and El Limon, and then people out there was the first who tried to protect themselves, and there also came up peasants looking for refuge because it was a Families played them flee to the mountains or anywhere where they saw that there was no danger to chulavita. The people, already much abused or who had lost their sons or relatives or things at the hands of the police was to protect emerging conservative taking any piece of old shotgun or any weapon to defend themselves. Then there is this desire that was forming the guerrillas of Loaiza. Well, so I understand that things were. -- VR-CRB. But Loaiza receiving guidance and assistance from the Liberal Party. So it could not simply be something spontaneous. -- E. G. It is clear that it is not who has been without guidance. But what I mean is that neither was an order of the Liberal Party of arming the guerrillas and now. I have never believed that this game has had discipline or mystical or ideological identity in this era where what had already was cheap politicking, to organize militancy in an army of resistance truth is that because neither was that was the intention. Rather, when the guerrillas how liberal is because farmers are suffering very tremendous repression that was what forced them to arm themselves, there were some specific conditions that pushed the people to arm themselves and that what did the Liberal Party was exploiting it , With opportunism, and then appear as who ran the thing, such as supporting the farmers, while those used to blackmail the conservatives. So later when no longer needed some leaders killed; others used them against the Communists and most are bandolerizaron because there was no ideology or principles of a real game that will think in the interests of the people. That's what I think. -- VR-CRB. Then again Loaiza was there the conditions, abuse, suppression of chulavita, the need to arm itself and also the opportunism of the Liberal party? -- E. G. If that's the thing, so I think that the liberal guerrillas - which among other things not everyone had the same behavior - at the end of the day were not more than a few tools and some victims first Liberal Party, just and Rojas, the end of bipartisanship and the oligarchy, telling all who suffered and decomposition. Loaiza then I also see them as there in that mess, as people who used the Liberal Party but those feelings against the communists were not part of their convictions. Because you see is that story from the beginning either, because according to the principle Loaiza helped - perhaps also for convenience - but helped the Communists are located where they came from IRCO. So I am counting first as a guerrilla movement that was formed from Loaiza and how is that they are with the Communists, but is not that I'm going to tell history themselves or history of the Communist Party of the Liberal Party until he was arming these groups but what Hence happened right away in IRCO, Rio Blanco, Herrera and that. Then, with the issue of violence in Rio Blanco came together 30 or 40 farmers on farm Gerardo Loaiza was a liberal who more or less economically well-off. There were her children, 4 children and families around the area and some who came from Garcia Herrera, and with these people is beginning Resistance Liberal Tolima, as throughout the first fight did things without experience, taking into account that them, according to Comrade Marulanda said the same, there was never a real military discipline and there was much individualism and much hatred against everything that was called conservative, and well acted with hatred and same procedures without which many people measure was conservative in name but had nothing to do with all these barbarities of the police Chulavita. The fighting between Loaiza did they say that they began attacking a roadblock monitoring Herrera conservatives in a village that was released, and then as the refusal of the police was strong conservative, it was forced to leave the south to the mountainous part where it was already acting as guerrillas continued and Gerardo Loaiza named as head of a Command Directorate which included military commanders as two sons of him and Leopoldo Garcia, who came from the garcía Herrera. -- VR-CRB. Well, then this is a group of guerrillas who became known as liberals. And we've asked to which it relates will give particular attention to how important it is for Raizales relations with the emergence of the FARC. But located in this era, you can refer in passing to other groups of guerrillas liberals? -- E. G. If it… how you say… these are things that not only knows the contemporary people, people who lived through the violence then they are things that have been written in books and those of the names soon know more and more pods the precise studying these subjects. For there are many very important data and interviews he has given Comrade Marulanda who was ordained on knowledge and deep understanding of the causes and consequences of these matters so complex. Then what is already said is the best explanation of everything, more so when Comrade lived if that stage, he was with Loaiza, after the side of Comrade Jacob PRI, was in unemployment of Davis. So what I'm telling you is what I think of all things as easily. For example, what is clear is that as the group of Loaiza expanded other liberal guerrillas in several regions of the country as resistance to the government of Ospina Perez. The guerrillas of Llano were very famous. The Liberal Party remained the guerrillas to bribe the Conservatives with the possibility of an insurrection; even declared a strike that failed, and each time Ospina became more dictator, closed chambers, the Assemblies, intensified inspections and enforcement in areas rural and declared a state of siege, although that was like saying that he was acting within the law because it did not need; deshacía and he did well without outside siege; Chulavita police had orders to act without any sort of moorings and why people had to act then, as I said, at around the nucleus Loaiza was self-defense liberal, and 30 or 40 became 70 after the action Herrera, and while guerrillas were loaded as a great Part of the groups at that time to families for fear that if the left just the government. Here on the banks of the river Saldana, it was all self-defense of Loaiza joined several groups that coordinated from one point they called an opportunity there in the rivers of Cambrín. Perhaps it seems that eight Road Back together with some 150 guerrillas who had the task of not only face attacks from La Chulavita but also walk away with conservatives without considerations. Well that on the one hand, but on the other side of Chaparral in the region and an area named El Limon also been organizing other guerrillas, but as something quite apart from this form of liberals with other ways, other ideas, other behaviour and were mainly as a basis for going to be what they called the Peasant Leagues that had formed the Communist Party in many parts. -- VR-CRB. Do these guerrillas mainly in that differed from the others? -- E. G. Not because the only thing similar is that in all the main thing in each group were peasants, rural people, but the rest were different in everything, starting because there are not a communist guerrillas sent Don Gerardo or Don Fulano but the heads that have the capacity and not because they had more money or more land. A good, but this land was also common at all because all were farmers as the most important and most immediate was the land, people are much attachment to the fight was over land. But if the rest here because communist guerrillas in the study was over, talks p'a all people on why they fought. Look at the people that he clarified that it was not against another poor peasant conservative to be undertaken but that the government was responsible for so much violence and this was the enemy because they also did something else that identify the guerrillas with liberal communists chulavita was that the police and the conservative government was a common enemy. Well, apart from that between the Communists are not tolerated as individualism, as acts of revenge and cruelty and everything that was achieved should be for everyone. That basically. -- VR-CRB. In this part we can say that in the case of shaping the communist guerrillas if there was more focused, clearer, more direct one party, the Communist Party? -- E. G. The guerrillas of Chaparral had training and had an ideology. If their interests were fighting for land that was next to the struggle for better governance and the welfare of all farmers and all Colombians and training it clear that the game played a key role, but not as some say that fuelled the war game, no. Here p'a explain this play to begin by saying that there has been no time when the communists have not bregado because they seek outlets peaceful dialogue, the war and I can even count how many times has stopped the conflict from the guerrillas in response to that idea of dialogue, reconciliation, but also how we have betrayed the oligarchs. Then this to say that if something has made the game is to help people who have had to react with violence to violence Regime do so within certain principles, not degrade, acting with noble ideals and without opportunism, but because things will change in favour of all Colombians and not a group of people as if he did the Liberal Party at that time that azuzó the emergence of guerrillas. There is another who must be said is that the communist policy of taking up arms was born, at least here in Colombia - I think - as a legitimate response, as a right to defend itself because it is seen to be formed paramilitary groups, group peasants to defend themselves from attack by the chulavita and all reactionary government that was mounted. And so, which was formed as a guerrilla was the need to avoid being killed first and then to seek social justice for all. Turning to the communist guerrillas of West Bengal mentioned that I had moved from IRCO communist guerrillas who were located with some help from Loaiza in Davis. That occurs in times of repression of Ospina Perez, but also the Communist Party was banned and persecuted. So, what else could make the game, did disappear? Wrong. The Communists are people fighting. The Party for example in Viotá (Cundinamarca), which had always had political organization, had departed from there guidelines for agricultural areas on shaping Peasant Leagues to fight for land. But the violence unleashed latifundismo also as the main actor, and what sparked the oligarchy and its government, and that was not only in Chaparral and El Limon but in the country. So when the game is outlawed, then do what you do touches, namely stress, which was a necessity since the time of the persecution against the Communists and liberals had unleashed cruelly at 49. Then in the region of El Limon and its environs was a boy Jorge Barrios Hernandez who was then in Chaparral. The boy led the Party policy and personally self-defense and a sheet entitled mimeógrafo Red Front. Any such activity in Chaparral's game, all that work that was known as part of the organizational and policy Chaparral, was headed primarily in Chical. 4. The first column of March -- VR-CRB. So here we already have the idea as establishing guerrilla groups of communists and liberals who are antecedents of the FARC. Tell us now is founded as the command of Davis, and if possible Tell us a bit of who the players from both guerrillas at this stage. -- E. G. It explained the role played by parties, then specifying a little more is the thing that has end of the 50 already there are two types of warfare: on the one hand they are as liberal united against the aggression of the conservatives. They acted against them Goths peasants and farmers Goths against liberals. And in the same Tolima throughout the municipality of Chaparral, especially in IRCO and directed from Chical, Viotá and in coordination with the Directorate of the Party in general was organized resistance against the violence of the government and landowners. There was developing the struggle for land and self-advocacy was established more like guidance of the Communist Party. This second group I mentioned that emerges Jorge Hernandez, who after the Olympic flame, also Elisha Manjarrés, Jorge Peñuela and others. But outside of these was Isauro yos, which is the same Mayor list. -- VR-CRB. Are all these leaders are communists? -- E. G. They are peasants, working people who were already organized in the area and applied communist politics. I do not know if as a very great knowledge of politics, but with a clear idea that the struggle was for everyone equally. Then suddenly the most studied was Olimpo who say that it was up poet. So at that time were aware that the police attacked a point of the communist sphere of influence they called Horizon. There were Elisha Manjarrés commanders and a gentleman named as mayor Pedro Ramos and suddenly them with others and fought off a gun to the police. This was a small victory but sounded because they had the best Armit the Horizon was a carbine lime. 22. After that the police attacked Chical and then from there, following the example of people also fought Horizonte. Beside Jorge Peñuela and other men who completed a command made 7 of the resistance, managed to defeat the police in El Limon and withdrew from Chical. This was a triumph but at the same time living in that area was dangerous because it is against the communist repression was more seriously. Then put the Organization of Communist Chaparral has been entrenched in 40 years, but when it came election to replace Ospina Perez did not put the Liberal Party and the candidate who won was Laureano Gómez, who once possession, immediately increased the Repression and ordered raze the area of Chical. It is here, at this time, when the government begins Gomez and produces the razing of Chical that Loaiza then invite the Communists to join forces. I think this era of mutual convenience; liberals Loaiza, Fidel sent Rico to formalize the proposal. So after you accept that, leaving the Communists in the First Column March importance for the scope that would, which is given in Tolima. And is the first, is that because there were several "columns running." -- VR-CRB. In what was the column march? -- E. G. It is that displacement of people due to violence were many; that had people scattered on the one hand and another, much as did the mountain toward town. It was like having many refugees from war but who respond by them. Then a column was running as an attempt to make a proceeding moved, but ordered, that people trying to be withdrawn from the areas most at risk, organizations, families, everything, but also because iban self-defense groups, armed men protecting that withdrawal at the same time trying to make new settlements, but with the possibility to continue to organize and maintain the resistance. -- VR-CRB. Do you know how was that first column running? -- E. G. It is that there are several, but I have more memory that everything that went on IRCO for what that is where the surge Davis, and the Villarrica I was at this march. So well summary, the First Column left Chical with a score of communist guerrillas and fifty farmers. Since leaving lasted five days to reach IRCO. They camped, it seems, in the farm Isauro yos and get to that stage because Isauro was a partner and recognized leader of the Peasant Leagues of the southern Tolima and councilman of Chaparral; besides this column commands Olympus as the commissioner as political and military commanders Eliseo Manjarrés seconded by Jorge Peñuela, because at that time was well; commissioners had political and military leaders. When the column arrived at IRCO, the proposal by Gerardo Loaiza is to continue northward so that it ceases to see, after which they would lose track back then was whether the south, Rio Blanco to meet with the Liberals. Well, be aware that this plan was executed well and that Manjarrés organized the march with women and children amid continuing into the river IRCO and then across the Bureau of Aguayo was due Ambeima. So were these movements, guerrilla revolt with people, in these marches became the first experiments that after guerrilla leaders were leading the resistance in the Davis and Villarrica. -- VR-CRB. What chiefs stress? -- E. G. Not anyway because all the people who was there supporting has a very great merit. -- VR-CRB. But…, who stood out as leaders? -- E. G. Beyond the bearings that each individual who might have taken in the political… that share or not, there were those who did so with sacrifice and dedication of revolutionaries and one could give names to enter, leave out people very valuable what gave everything to find a path of justice. In addition, I think they already mentioned some names, like that of Hernandez who took the pseudonym of Olympus, or the Peñuela who died in Villarrica and being a little earlier than prisoner put to Isauro yos. They walked in turns to receive logistics for the resistance of Villarrica that sent the game. How and why, I do not know but the army killed him and later apprehended Isauro; anyone could be the excuse, but the main reason is that communist era. Also from these people in the first column running Andres Bermudez went to they called Llanero, who although he played an important role and courageous, very bad ending his life with an unforgivable betrayal to be back in Davis, he was the victim of his own betrayal . He was killed themselves liberals who surrendered to the camp with everything and the few people remaining when Davis was unoccupied. T Also Raul Valbuena was called Baltazar. The latter two brothers were there in the column. Just as something very special, without anyone demerits, I think a very important role it played Jose Alfonso Castaneda who commanded the rear of the column. When Comrade Castaneda met him as he and Richard, in addition to its role in Davis, then was one of the most spirit, moral order and gave the curtain Resistance as was done in Villarrica. I joined the ranks was that he ran and that he was anduve in column running of the people who came out of Villarrica to Galilee and then to the Guayabero, why keep him great respect and admiration, for it is that one can not desagradecido be with colleagues who had helped him to form and more with comrades who gave life to the process. -- VR-CRB. Comrade Ephraim, and Isauro yos What we can tell, he does not also part of the leadership emerging from this column First Run? -- E. G. Yes, it has Isauro that it had already mentioned. Of course, Isauro highlighted on driving, even before the March column leaving Chical. Isauro is make the peasant movement of IRCO. Because he was a farmer, he had his Tierrita, and had cane, and got as panela for sale or not and nothing else for him now. Then Isauro he was a man from the countryside, prosperous and very enterprising, he had been contacted by the Communist Party. I do not know when to begin relations with Isauro the game, but the truth is that before the march Chical since he was already recognized as the leader of the Peasants League, and as I said earlier, he had been councillor in Chaparral and was also , Among the peasants themselves, in that region of the first to speak and has already begun to disseminate ideas as communist, which is why the startup of self-defense came through it. Upon exiting the column, and makes it arrives at its station farm, but he did not march, he stays. Perhaps this is planned, I think. Isauro arrives at Cambrín when people are already there. There had been fighting the Culebra lands of Loaiza, where until police arrived. There Communists and liberals fought together, the same side, but the communist guerrillas appreciated that this point was indefensible and climbed in the headwaters of Cambrín. Then he came to Isauro the news that iban a caerle to IRCO, so we collected livestock, food and other belongings, they left women and children and also departed for the headwaters of Cambrín. That, therefore, is the version that I know in the mouth of people who had closer relationship with Isaura yos. There was hardly came as a man of many ideas and decided once and linked it to the Directorate of Command Davis already beginning to settle there. There undoubtedly Isauro, or Major Lister, as it was called, plays a key role in the formation of that material and ideological command. Already by that time had 40 years of age. -- VR-CRB. Well, returning to the first column of March, you said that delicacies, obviously with the leadership of the Party, organized the march as agreed with the Liberals, then, when the reunion occurs, what happens? -- E. G. Yes, that was done as agreed: There is some details are interesting because they do understand that it was not a walk and now. It was the displacement as a result of repression, and even during the march to endure such rigour. Why is that as the nine days of running these people was ambushed, fortunately without serious consequences because it managed to evade the police and venture into the jungle to suffer what we suffered as a common thing all the columns march: hunger, childbirth-several of them on the late-running, diseases, some dead and all kinds of difficulties. But with all that, taking that course was agreed the south, after losing the enemy, they managed to leave The LINDOS, at the top of the canyon's Cambrín where the march ended. -- VR-CRB. It is clear that in this region of Cambrín is where is the conjunction of two resistance movements. You also mentioned the Cambrín when he spoke of the battle of Culebra and said that after that fact was that the communists took the upper river to settle. So let's talk a bit more on the order that you give the presence of people of Chaparral in Cambrín to locate better in the story. -- E. G. This is simple; arrival at the LINDOS at the top of the Canyon Cambrín occurs as part of the final march column undertaken after leaving Chical. There then comes the reunion with Loaiza to define what they will do as a joint force and where the communist guerrillas and families came from Chical. By that time comes a few days of staying together in one site owned by Loaiza called The GALLER where they celebrate the success of the march column. That's when the police arrive until that edge chulavita called La Culebra and is the first joint combat communists and liberals against the enemy. It is after this and already agree with Loaiza as the Communists are located in the upper Cambrín to found the Davis. -- VR-CRB. Well back a little back, retaking rather that concern why Loaiza allow the location of people who headed the Communists, in an area that was of them, the Liberals, what motivates you cree this situation? Does is an attitude of solidarity, is an attitude of co-existence, or what it is there? -- E. G. I think there are mixed lot, because it can not be said that there was never solidarity, because there are starting to look at the condition of peasants who had the vast majority, has the characteristic that is among rural people that is to help, given things, the calamities relief. Besides all they had, despite the sectarianism that had sown the partisan struggle, like behaviour, many people had good feelings and clear thinking; up of thought akin to greater purpose to fight not only by the colors of the party, or by land but for justice for all. So just had enough aspects of identity with the Liberals more consistent, which is why you see that when the breaking of the Davis lot of people, many people themselves liberal or people influenced by them, to define stayed with the Communists. But if he had, that there is no denying, a mutual interest to join a unity of interest. On the interest of liberal one must say that there was a coexistence that was what the need to be strong enough to confront the police. And then Loaiza knew that the communist guerrillas were disciplined, and courageous people who was not Athens but was working and always ready to fight, fight knew. Then it weighed a lot. Already the interest of the communist era of major political significance; was driving the Democratic Front for National Liberation, and the idea of unity was a sense of patriotic interest. 5. The founding of DAVIS -- VR-CRB. Back then the moment of encounter with Loaiza. Featured Comrade, circumstances, a history major from the foundation of Davis. -- E. G. After the march ending in LINDOS, Leopoldo Garcia (Danger) arrived with other guerrillas to invite people from the communists to move to a farm that Gerardo had Loaiza in GALLER. There was a kind of liberal camp of the guerrillas, and the party celebrated the arrival of people after such a motion. Because everyone was going with an idea that there was a need to join forces and with the characteristics that I pointed out how each of whom saw the unit. That same established what is called a General Staff Guerrilla Unified to fight the chulavitas. Let's say this was the military advance, but despite the Communist Address spoke to them to make unity in the Democratic Front, did not welcome this initiative. The most productive of that time was that integrating the General Staff with 8 and 7 communist liberal head of Olympus and Gerardo Loaiza. And it was decided the location of the Communists, first in the so-called Filo de La Culebra, but then there was the chulavita where he arrived and took the first set battle between liberals and Communists against chulavita and that was what led Manjarrés. That and Richard began to stand out more as a combatant. The single rifle regained it removed the enemy and the truth that what we always knew that time was that she had a magnificent performance in that fight in which 50 policemen rejected. That fight led to the end of communist guerrillas convinced that the site was difficult to be defended and that is why it was decided to go to the top of the river Cambrín. In this part the same liberals who influenced peasants Gerardo Loaiza gave them land to be "while the war lasted" also took other lands that were unoccupied because many people had left huyéndole to violence conservative government. It was in that sector where finally founded the Command of Davis. Typically, especially in the beginning was the misery he had, lack of food, lack of resources of all kinds. But as much discipline and solidarity could organize, make a camp with parade ground, rooms, schools, nursing, laundries, sites for swimming, commissary, etc.. That, at first there was no teacher or nurse, nor medicines and better, missing many things, but at least had the desire and the project to improve everything. So after already managed to master and even judge put p'a fix the problems. That is where the Davis I say that came Isauro yos. There you bind the direction and alongside other comrades, with the effort of all, give a lot of momentum, give force to command both in materials as well as ideological. -- VR-CRB. Taking into account that this whole effort is being done by the construction of Davis, in the midst of so many needs, what significance should have this enclave of revolutionaries in reconstructing the history of communist guerrilla movement? -- E. G. The Davis is carrying out the practice. When we reach that stage of the foundation and after the consolidation of Davis, there in the peasant movement communist Chaparral who had already undergone training in self-defense, had also absorbed what they were marches, the difficulties of supply, contradictions involved in politics, the strictness of some fighting, and had already somewhat bound by the requirements, but also by the projects, assuming the guerrilla life well beyond infancy. I think that between the time of IRCO and unemployment of Davis is the first stage of development of the revolutionary guerrillas in Colombia. And it is a very important because it gave the first Commanders who give the boot to communist armed resistance and what will be below the guerrillas of the FARC. At this stage are linked among others, Comrade Manuel and Charro Black. Conte a bit more, here in Davis, who was a site between the hills and mountain vegetation greatest concern was the food, security and ideological training. They say, began temple firmness of communist guerrilla movement. Circumstances forced to assume a military regime from where he promoted the idea of Democratic Front. That many farmers went to seek protection. The Directorate set up a network of intelligence to defend the camp. This network called The Hard Red and served as liaison with other commands that were created later. More ... Efrain Guzman. Summaries for the portrayal of a commander who spoke in the fight By By Ivan Marquez He was 40 years when he arrived in Uraba in 1978. That afternoon of April, Comrade Nariño was received by the guerrillas in Uncle Lopez, a place where the Serrania Abib are embracing the area with banana and savannah. It came from the Cordillera Central, the group of fighters in the operation acrisolados Sonora. The mission, emerged from the Sixth Conference, it had been transmitted directly by commanders Manuel Marulanda and Jacobo Arenas, in the Canyon of Doubt. It was the new commander of the Fifth Front to replace Alberto Martinez, who had been killed by the army in El Limon, jurisdiction of the municipality of Turbo. Since then became known as Efrain Guzman. In the resistance of Villarrica Age of Tolima. She was born in La LINDOS, Chaparral for indoors. As a child he worked as a collector in the Quindio coffee. He was then journeyman in Dolores. Hence became Villarrica where in 1953, the dictatorship of General Rojas Pinilla, enters the guerrilla detachment of Alfonso Castaneda. He was 16 years old, and was already in the resistance to the government and in the trenches fighting to defend a position and some political ideas. Six months of tough resistance, mortereo permanent enemy positions; thunder of knobs, carbines and shotguns, on the side of the village. In the end, forced by circumstances and misfortunes logistical fighters were communists withdraw through the wilderness toward San Rafael. After they leave dozens of peasant families with their belongings and Livestock. Cruzan fangales the San Rafael and enrumban to Colombia (Huila). In the pot Palacios, the young Narino participates in a military political course of two months. And from there as part and parcel of the column commander Castaneda deep into the jungle of Guayabero. In that region met Dumas Aljure, head of the liberal guerrilla Llano, which saw starting later in a pond, downstream, with its sectarianism him, and without troops because most of its men were wielding communist flags. Arrival at the ducks and their encounter with the commander MANUEL From Guayabero's going to duck, legendary region between Huila and Caqueta. They had seven years since joining and already Comrade Narino, as well as militant Party, began to stand out as middle. With the passage of time and in correspondence with the new political situation in the country, with their comrades were engaged in open farms, to sow the land and reap its fruits. But peace only lasts until 1964, when the government of Guillermo León Valencia militarily attacked Marquetalia. Then the guerrillas of El Pato had to grasp their weapons again in solidarity with their colleagues attacked. The region of Algeciras and in general the border of Huila and Caqueta is the scene of heavy fighting. The confrontation covered Marquetalia, Riochiquito, El Pato and Guayabero. Alfonso Castaneda had died in an accident at the explosives workshop on tasks enlistment for war. Two years after the attack on Marquetalia, in 1966, Narino commander was among the 70 fighters who received and welcomed the comrade Manuel that its guerrillas had crossed the valley of Magdalena to continue the fight from El Pato. In that region of forests, rivers and mountain ranges are the historic Second Conference of the South Block constituent FARC. Narino is in the commission of Comrade Manuel. As he walks San Vicente del Caguan and the plains of Yara. There were 32 guerrillas. They had to beat a number of occasions with the army official, but always airosos left in the bottom line, and recovered weapons. From the savannas of Yara returning to Algeciras, where he hoped the commander Jacobo Arenas. This was Franco, the beloved friend and comrade of Narino. Many years later, in Uraba, recalled that his friend had entered El Pato before the arrival of Comrade Manuel, and thence had been sent, together with the commander Jaime Guaracas, the Fourth Front of the FARC in the Magdalena Medio. Still spoke with regret his death after a grenade "poisoned" it exploded in his hands. INSTRUCTOR nine fighters From Algeciras are directed at the Duda River region, where comrades and Manuel Jacobo deployed a formidable work of political organization and recruitment. Then of course the new political military guerrillas were sent to Comrade Nariño to make his first practices fight. Five of these young people, among them Alberto Martinez, were sent to Uraba to form the guerrillas in these lands. Nariño and the operation Sonora In 1973, after the Conference of the Guayabero, Narino comes with Comrade Manuel on a new journey by guerrilla southern Tolima in which the protagonist is frontline in the historic Opera Sonora. Both the government and the army, emboldened with the results of the operation Anorí against the ELN, believed is time to strike a devastating blow against the structure of the FARC. On October 15, near Herrera, Manuel guerrillas ambushed an army patrol that came down. Several military, and among them, alias El Gringo-guide patrols and scourge of peasants-were written off final. Nine M-2 carbines, two handguns and 2,700 rounds of ammunition, came at the hands of the FARC. It was the start of the operation. They kept 15 successive days of fighting, airborne troops and military fences on land peeling extremely difficult without population: The canyons of Sonora and Cambrín and moor the Beautiful. Comrade Narino played an active role in ambushes and fighting and breaking fences. The army suffered heavy casualties, while the side of the guerrillas died only two companions. Uraba: new stage of fighting After the operation Sonora Comrade Manuel returns to Duda and Narino left in the Cordillera Central at the helm of some 40 guerrillas. Later the Sixth Conference is appointed commander of the Fifth Front to replace Alberto Martinez who had died in combat. From that moment is when you are called Efrain Guzman. From entry into land urabaenses had to face the attempted infiltration of fractional Bernardo Gutierrez, who wanted at all costs be commander of the Fifth Front. Seeing obstructed the passage to his ambition opted to drop to 9 dragging guerrillas, stolen some weapons, ammunition, equipment and other assets propaganda of the organization. It was to stop the EPL becoming one of the architects of the demobilization and claudication of this guerrilla group. Even receives pay as the silver coins of his betrayal acting as officer of lesser rank in any of those embassies of Colombia's regime in Europe. Having overcome this situation, Efrain Guzman concentrated all their energies on the growth of the Fifth Front, in the pursuit of weapons and the political organization of the population. After three years there is the first splitting of the fifth, giving rise to 18 Front, which is assigned area of operations as the jurisdictions of Monteria, Tierra Alta and the Bajo Cauca. Two years later he created the Front 34 with 130 fighters under the leadership of Isaiah Trujillo. Then on 18 gives rise to 35 Front that operates in Sucre, and 34 to 57 commanded by Victor Tirado, an extensive area of operations: the Atrato and Darien. The Fifth also leaves the 58 Front of the FARC. The actions of the guerrillas stands at this time making Saiz (Cordova), which could be called a pioneer of large and forceful military actions by the FARC. Simultaneously with this growth and splitting of fronts grows equally the Communist Party and the Patriotic Union, making the latter organization, by the way electoral win the mayoralties of the most important strategic region of Colombia. Elect members of the Secretary In the Eighth National Conference Guerilla, Efrain Guzman was elected on their merits and fidelity to the cause as a member of the Secretariat of the FARC, People's Army. The master of guerrillas had already molded many commanders and fighters in the fire moral courage in the face of the enemy and firmness in revolutionary. THE Carib to eternity In the last stage of his life, Efrain Guzman generous offer their expertise to the guerrillas of the Caribbean Bloc of the FARC. Encourages efforts of organization of the Communist Party Clandestine, Militia and the Bolivarian Movement for the New Colombia. Undoubtedly it was a diffuser consistent with the principles of the organization and tireless worker for the materialization of the objectives of the Strategic Plan of the FARC. With practical actions helped to strengthen further the ties of our organization with arms raised in the revolutionary thought and redeemer of the Liberator Simón Bolívar. For him the words of the poet: The duck was born for glory to forge with Jacobo and Manuel the most titanic gesture and sublime, the most heroic and pristine bay Bolivar we stick with that history. With justice to shoulder and the memory of blood of the people and the carnation, sowed in the Andes seed faithful and gave the Caribbean its constant Ferris wheel. Descendant of the sun, brother of ancestral agriculture, Albores expert and seeds and sowing vital already ripe: with fervor invincible is preparing the garden with its Trillo to create the future society germinating in the simpler souls. The commander Efrain will live among us, directing with its light, much brighter now, until victory. Comrade Guzman, "since your fertile guerrilla hands, is germinating, the harvest of freedom. We are part of your planting!"
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